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Indian Polity | भारतीय राज्यव्यवस्था


Constitution Framework

  1. Historical Background

The Company Rule

The Crown Rule

  • Marking of the Consitution

Composition of the Constituent Assemble

Working of the Constituent Assemble

Committees of the Constituent Assembly

Enforcement of the Constituent

Criticism of the Constutuent Assembly


Salient Features of the Constitution

Text of the Preamble

Ingredients of the Preamble

Key Words in the Preamble

Significance of the Preamble

Preamble as Part of the Constitution

Amendability of the Preamble

Union of State

Parliament’s Power to Reorganise the States

Evolution of State and Union Terriories

Meaning and Significance

Constitutional Provisions

Citizenship Act, 1955

Single Citizenship

  • Fundamental Rights

Features of Fundamental Rights

Definition of State

Law Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights

Right to Equality

Right to Freedom

Right Against Exploitation

Right to Freedom of Religion

Cultural and Educational Rights

Right to Constituonal Remedies

Writs-Types and Scope

Armed Forces and Fundamental Rights

Martial Law and Fundamental Rights

Effecting Certain Fundamental Rights

Present Position of Right to Property

Exceptions to Fundamental Rights

Criticism of Fundamental Rights

Significance of Fundamental Rights

Rights Outside Part III

  • Directive Principles of State Policy

Features of the Directive Principles

Classification of the Directive Principles

New Directive Principles

Sanction Behind Directive Principles

Criticism of the Directive Principles

Confict Between Fundametal Rights and Directive Principles

Implementation of Directive Principles

Directives Outside Part IV       

Swaran Singh Committee Recommendations

List of Fundamental Duties

Features of the Fundamental Duties

Criticism of Fundamental Duties

Significance of Fundamental Duties

Verma Committee Observations

  1. Amendment of the Consitution

Procedure for Amendment

    Types of Amendments

    Criticism of the Amendment Procedure

  1. Basic Structure of the Consitution

Emergence of the Basic Structure

          Elements of the Basic Structure

Part II

System of Government

  1. Parliamentary System

Features of Parliamentary Goverment

Features of Presidential Government

Merits of the Parliamentary System

Demerits of the Parliamentary System

Reasons for Adopting Parliamentary System

Distinction between Indian and British Models

  1. Federal System

      Federal Features of the Constitution

      Unitary Features of the Constitution

      Critical Evaluation of  the Fedenral System

  1. Centre-State Realtions

Legislative Relations

Finacial Relations

Trends in Centre-State Relations

  1. Inter-State Relations

Inter-State Water Disputer

Inter-State Councils

Public Acts, Records and Judicial Proceedings

Inter-State Trade and Commerce

Zonal Councils

  1. Emergency Provisions

National Emergency

President’s Rule

Finacial Emergency

Criticism of the Emergency Provisions

Part III

Central Government

  1. President

        Election of the President

Qualifications, Oath and Conditions

Term, Impeachment and Vacancy

Powers and Functions of the President

Veto Power of the President

Ordinance – making Power of the President

Pardoning Power of the President

Constututinal Position of the President

Article related to the President

  1. Vice- President



Oath a Affirmation

Conditions of Offfice

Term of Office

Vacancy in office

Election Disputes

Powers and Functions

Indian and Americna Vice-Presidents Compared


List of vice-President

Article related to vice-President

  1. Prime Minister

Appointment of the prime Minister

Oath, Term and Salary

Power and Functions of the Prime Minister

Role Descriptions

Relationship with the President

Chief Minister who became Prime Minister

  • Central Council of Ministers

Constitutional Provisions

Nature of Advice by Ministers

Appointment of Ministers

Responsibility of Ministers

Composition of the Council of Ministers

Council of  Ministers

Role of Cabinet

Role of Descriptions

Kitchen Cabinet

  • Cabinet Committees

Features of Cabinet Committees

List of Cabinet Cabinet Committees

Functions of Cabinet Committees

Groups of Ministers

  • Parliament

Organisation of Parliament

Composition of the Two Houses

System of Elections to Lok Sabha

Duration of Tow Houses

Membership of Parliament

Presiding Officers of Parliament

Leaders in Parliament

Sessions of Pariament

Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings

Legislative Procedure in Parliament

Joint Sitting of Two Houses

Budget in Parliament

Multifunctional Role of Parliament

Ineffectiveness of Parliament Control

Position of Rajya Sabha

Parliamentary Privileges

Sovereignty of Parliament

  • Parliamentary Committees]

Meaning and Classification

  • Parliamentary Forums

Establishment of Forums

Objectives of the Forums

Composition of the Forums

Functions of the Forums

  • Superme court

Organisation of Superme Court

Seat of Superme Court

Prodependence of Superme Court

Independence of Superme Court

Jurisdiction and Powers of Superme Court

Superme Court Advocates

Part IV

State Government

  • Governor

Appointment of Governor

Conditions of Governor’s Office

Term of Governor’s Office

Power and Functions of Governor

Constitutional Position of Governor

  • Chief Minister

Appointment of Chief Minister

Oath, Term and Salary

Powers and Functions of Chief Minister

Relationship with the Governor

  • State Council of Ministers

Consitutional Provisions

Nature of Advice by Ministers

Appointment of Ministers

Oath and Salary of Ministers

Responsibility of Ministers

Composition of the Council of Ministers


  • State Legislature

Organisation of State Legislature

Composition of Two Houses

Duration fo Two Houses

Membership of State Legislature

Sessions of State Legislature

Legislature Procedure in State Legislature

Position of Legislature Council

Privileges of State Legislature

  • High Court

Organisation Court

Independence of High Court

Jurisdiction and Power of High Court

  • Subordinate Courts

Constitutional Provisions

Structure and jurisdiction

  • Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir

Accession of J&K of India

Present Relationship Between J&K and India

Features of J&k Constitution

J&K Autonomy Resolution Rejected

Group of Interlocutors for J&K

  • Special Provisions for Some States

Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat

Provisions for Nagaland

Provisions for Assam and Manipur   

Provisions for Andhra Pradesh

Provisions for Sikkim

Provisions for Mizoram

Provisions for Arunchal Pradesh and Goa

Provisions for Karnataka

Part V

Local Government

  • Panchayati Raj

Evolution of Panchayati Raj

73rd Amendment Act 1992

Compulsory and Voluntary Provisions

PESA Act of 1996 (Extension Act)

  • Municipalities

Evolution of Urban Bodies

74th Amendment Act of 1992

Types of Urban Governments

Municipal Personnel

Central Council of Local Government

Part VI

Union Territories and Special Areas

Creation of Union Territories

Administration of Union Territories

Special Provosions for Delhi

Advisory Committees of Union Territories

Administration of Scheduled Areas

Administration of Tribal Areas

Part VII

Constitutional Bodies

  • Election Commission



Powers and Functions Of Governal







  • State Public Service Commission







  • Finace Commission



Advisory Role

Impact of Planning Commission

Commission Appointed

  • National Commission for SCs

Evolution of the Commission

Functions of the Commission

Report of the Commission

Commission Appointed

Separate Commission for STs

Functions of the Commission

Report of the Commission

Power of the Commission

Constitutional Provisions

Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities


Vision and Mission

 Functions and Objectives

Appoinment and Term


Duties and Powers


CAG and Corporations

Appleby’s Criticism

Appointment and Term


Duties and Functions

Rights and Limitations

Solicitor General of India

  • Advocate General of the State

Appointment and Term

Duties and Functions


Non-Constitutional Bodies



Internal Organisation


Programme Evaluation Organisation

Critical Evaluation




Critical Evaluation

Establishment of the Human Rights Commission

Commposition of the Commission

Fuctions of the Commission                         

Working of the Commission        

Role of the Commission

Performance of the Commission

Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006

Composition of the Commission

Fuctions of the Commission

Working of the Commission        

Human Rights courts


Tenure and Service Conditions

Powers and Functions


Tenure and Service Conditions

Powers and Functions






Establishment of CBI

Motto, Mission, and Vision of CBI

Organisation of CBI

Composition of CBI

Functions of CBI

CBI vs. State Police

CBI Academy

Global Scenario



Part IX

Other Constitutional Dimensions

  • Co-operative Societies

Constitutional Provisions

Reasons for the 97th Amendment

Language of the Union

Regional Languages

Language of the Judiciary and Texts of Laws

Special Directives

Classification of Services

Constitutional Provisions

  • Tribunals

Administrative Tribunals

Tribunals for Other Matters

Property of the Union and the States

Suits by or Against the Government

Suits Against Public Officials

Constitutional Provisions

Reason for the 58th Amendment

Rationale of Special Provisions

Specification of Classes

Components of Special Provisions

Part X

Political Dynamics

Meaning and Types

Party System in India

Recognition of National and State Parties

  • Elections

Election System

Election Machinery

Election Process

Committees Related to Electoral Reforms

Electoral Reforms Before 1996

Electoral Reforms of 1996

Electoral Reforms After 1996

Electoral Reforms Since 2010

Provisions of the Act

Evaluaction of the Act

91st Amendment Act (2003)

Meaning and Techniques

Pressure Groups in India

Meaning of National Integration

Obstacles to National Integration

National Integration Council

National Foundation for Communal Harmony

Principles of Indian Foreign Policy

Objectives of Indian Foreign Policy

Look East Policy of India

Gujral Doctrine of India

Nuclear Doctrine of India

Part XI

Working of the Constitution

  • National Commission to Review the Working of the Consitution

Terms of Reference of the Commission

Fifty Years of Working of the Constitution

Areas of Concern:  Commission’s Perception

Recommendations of the Commission

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